Ligament injuries are the most frequently ignored and misunderstood factor in low-back pain. More often than not, chronic pain in the low-back area is caused by tears and subsequent adhesive scar tissue formation in the ligaments.
Although the majority of low-back pain actually originates in the sacral ligaments, tears to the ligaments at L1 through L5 and the iliolumbar ligament occur frequently and can be very painful.
Pain in the low back may be accompanied by referred pain felt in the buttock, groin, genital, thigh, lower leg, foot, or a combination of these areas. The ligaments most frequently sprained include the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments between L4 and L5 and between L5 and S1, as well as the iliolumbar ligament.